The relationships between self-criticism, submissive behavior and depression among Turkish adolescents

Ongen D. E.

PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, vol.41, no.5, pp.793-800, 2006 (SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 41 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2006
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.paid.2006.03.013
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.793-800
  • Keywords: adolescents, depression, comparative self-criticism, internalized self-criticism, submissive behavior, PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES, EXPERIENCES, PSYCHOPATHOLOGY, VULNERABILITY, ANXIETY, ESTEEM, SCALE
  • Akdeniz University Affiliated: No


The purpose of this research was to study the relationships between two dysfunctional forms of negative self-evaluation: Comparative Self-Criticism and Internalized Self-Criticism, submissive behavior and depression. Subjects were 235 high school students and 157 university students who completed The Levels of Self-Criticism (LOSC), the Submissive Acts Scale (SAS) and the Beck Depression Inventory. Multiple regression analyses showed that Comparative Self-Criticism and submissive behavior are independent predictors of depression in both high school and university students whereas no such relationship was demonstrated for Internalized Self-Criticism. These findings provide support for sensitivity to external standards rather than internal ones in middle and late adolescence being relevant to depression. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.