Do consumers need to smell? Scale development and validation


JOURNAL OF SENSORY STUDIES, vol.36, no.2, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 36 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/joss.12630
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CAB Abstracts, Compendex, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Psycinfo, Veterinary Science Database
  • Akdeniz University Affiliated: Yes


The Need-to-Smell (NTS) scale aims to assess the differentiator role of olfactory information. The NTS construct definition is the degree to which an ambient scent is effective on consumers' shopping experiences. The scale items appearing as the result of the literature search and ZMET interviews were refined and finalized with the analysis of data gathered via online panels. Through this entire process, explorative and confirmative factor analysis and all the required validity analyses were performed. The nomological validity is proven by the positive relationships between the NTS scale and the Evoked Nostalgia Scale and the Impulse Buying Scale. The positive correlation with the Importance of Olfaction questionnaire is the evidence for the convergent validity. The discriminant validity is also realized as there is no relationship with the Need for Cognition scale. In the end, the NTS scale with two factors, namely, approach factor which is more related to the effects of pleasant scent on expectation, desire, attention, satisfaction, confidence, and avoidance factor which is more related the negative evaluations originated from unpleasant scent, is appeared. After conducting further studies to understand the nature of the NTS scale, the theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.