Myocarditis and intracardiac thrombus due to Henoch-Schonlein purpura: case report and literature review

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Yilmaz N., YÜKSEL S., Becerir T., Girisgen I., UFUK F., GÜRSES D., ...More

CLINICAL RHEUMATOLOGY, vol.40, no.4, pp.1635-1644, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 40 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10067-020-05317-8
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.1635-1644
  • Keywords: Cardiac involvement, IgA vasculitis, Nephritis, Prognosis, Treatment, CARDIAC INVOLVEMENT, RHEUMATIC CARDITIS, VASCULITIS, MANIFESTATIONS
  • Akdeniz University Affiliated: Yes


Cardiac involvement is very rare in patients with Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP). In this case study, we present an 8-year-old girl presenting with HSP-induced myocarditis and thrombus in the right atrium and HSP nephritis. To date, 15 cases of HSP-related cardiac involvement have been reported in the PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. These cases, together with our case, are included in this review. We excluded those patients with other rheumatologic diseases (acute rheumatic fever, acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, Kawasaki disease) accompanied by HSP. Three were children and 13 were adults and all were male except our case. This review revealed tachyarrhythmia, chest pain, dyspnea, murmur, and heart failure as the major signs. Cardiac tests, electrocardiogram (ECG), and imaging methods (echocardiography in all patients, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in three, cardiac biopsy in one, and post-mortem necropsy in three) showed that the cardiac involvements were pericardial effusion, intra-atrial thrombus, myocarditis, coronary artery changes, myocardial ischemia, infarction and necrosis, subendocardial hemorrhage, and left ventricular dilatation. Kidney involvement was not observed in three patients. As the treatment, high-dose prednisolone and cyclophosphamide, oral corticosteroid, azathioprine, nadroparin calcium, ACE inhibitors, calcium antagonists, beta-blockers, and diuretics were used. Eleven patients (all three children and eight of the adults) had a complete cardiac recovery. Cardiac involvement in adults was more likely to be fatal. Death (three patients), ischemia, and infarct have been reported only in adults. We suggested that early and aggressive treatment can be life-saving. MRI examination is effective at identifying cardiac involvement.