This article, based on consular reports obtained from the National Archives and Records Administration and the United States Department of Commerce and Labor, examines the economic situation of the Diyarbekir province between 1900 and 1909. In the first part, the article analyzes the socio-economic situation of the province of Diyarbekir. The next part examines Diyarbekir's trade potential and the amount and evaluation of the products subject to import and export within the province. The final section discusses the economic relations of the United States of America with the province. Within this framework, it becomes evident that no American agency has established its base in Diyarbekir. Instead, commercial operations transpire under the auspices of the Eastern Turkey American Agency and the Harput American Consulate. The province primarily exports agricultural and livestock-based raw products. Conversely, imports predominantly comprise finished and semi-finished goods. It is notable that there is a limited demand for American products within the entire province.