Emergence and Spread of an All-Inclusive System in the Turkish Tourism Sector and Strategic Responses of Accommodation Firms


International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, no.14, pp.305-340, 2013 (Scopus)


This study investigates the effect of environmental pressures on

the emergence and spread of the all-inclusive system (AIS) in

the Turkish tourism sector, and the strategic responses given by

accommodation firms in the Antalya region. Accommodation

firms face pressures from external actors (institutional perspective),

while also being dependent on other organizations (resource

dependence perspective) in ensuring the smooth performance of

their activities under the conditions of high environmental uncertainty.

An integrated perspective of neo-institutional theory and

resource-dependence theory is employed to examine the national,

institutional and organizational contexts that are assumed to be

influential in the emergence and spread of AIS, with both qualitative

and quantitative research methods being used. The major

findings of the study indicate that economic and political changes

in the national context; coercive,mimetic, and normative pressures

in the institutional context; and strategic responses of accommodation

firms to environmental pressures in the organizational context

have been influential in the emergence and spread of AIS. The

study concludes with a summary of the theoretical and practical

implications, and suggestions for future research.

KEYWORDS all-inclusive system, institutional theory, resource

dependence theory, strategic responses, accommodation firms