Dynamical behaviour of HIV Infection with the influence of variable source term through Galerkin method

Ullah A., Jan R., Yüzbaşı Ş.

CHAOS SOLITONS & FRACTALS, vol.152, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 152
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.chaos.2021.111429
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, INSPEC, zbMATH
  • Keywords: CD4(+) T-cells, HIV infection, Mathematical model, Galerkin method, Numerical simulations, Numerical comparison, CD4(+) T-CELLS, FRACTIONAL-ORDER MODEL, MATHEMATICAL-ANALYSIS, TRANSMISSION, ZIDOVUDINE, HIV/AIDS, SYSTEM
  • Akdeniz University Affiliated: Yes


In this paper, we formulate the intricate process of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection in a mathematical model. In the formulation of the model, the density of CD4(+) T-cells is categorized into healthy and infected classes while the density of free HIV viruses in the human host's blood is considered a separate class. It is reported that when HIV enters a human's body, it infects a large amount of CD4(+) T-cells and unbalance the supply of new cells from the thymus. Therefore, we incorporate variable source term relying on the viral load for the supply of new cells instead of using a fixed value for the supply of these cells. We implement a continuous Galerkin Petrov time discretization scheme, particularly cGP(2)-scheme to visualize the dynamical behavior of the mentioned model and a detailed description of the effects of different physical parameters of interest are depicts graphically and discuss that how the level of healthy, infected CD4(+) T-cells and free HIV particles varies concerning the emerging parameters in the model. In the proposed cGP(2)-method, two unknowns terms can be found by solving a 2 x 2 block system. This method is accurate of order 3 in the whole time interval and shows even superconvergence of order 4 in the discrete-time points. Furthermore, determine the solution of the model utilizing the fourth-order Runge-Kutta (RK4)-method and find out the absolute errors between the solutions obtained from both approaches. Finally, the validity and reliability of the proposed scheme are verified by comparing the numerical and graphical results with the RK-4 method. We examine the accuracy of the cGP(2)-sheme and observe that it produces more accurate results at relatively larger step sizes as in comparison to RK-4 scheme. Correspondence between the findings of cGP(2)-method and RK4-method reveal that the new technique is a promising tool for obtaining approximate solutions to the nonlinear systems of real-world problems. (C) 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.