Production of soapwort concentrate and soapwort powder and their use in Turkish delight and tahini halvah

Cam I. B., TOPUZ A.

JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, vol.41, no.1, 2018 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 41 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/jfpe.12605
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Akdeniz University Affiliated: Yes


Soapwort extract is a traditional additive, produced by extracting soapwort roots [Gypsophila bicolor (Freyn et Sint.) Grossh] in boiling water. It is used for color, volume, and texture improvements of several foods. In this study, the optimum extraction conditions and membrane concentration for soapwort extract were determined to produce enriched soapwort powder as a stable and efficient additive in place of the traditional extract. The optimum extraction conditions were determined by using response surface method as following: root to water 1:10, average particle size 4.5 mm, and temperature at 95 degrees C and extraction time for 3 hr. This extract has been enriched with saponin via reverse osmosis up to 20% concentration of soluble solids. Soapwort powder, includes 4% moisture, produced from the soapwort concentrate by using the spray dryer. Some physicochemical properties of the powder were determined as 46.3 g saponin/100 g (dm), 0.36 water activity, and 7.74 m average particle size distribution. Additionally, bulk density, spray drying recovery yield (dm), and water solubility were determined as 469 kg/m(3), 87%, and 94%, respectively. The diluted soapwort concentrate and reconstituted soapwort powder were tested in production of Turkish delight and halvah in comparison to commercial soapwort extract at the same soluble solid content. Results showed that there were no statistical differences on the color and the appearance scores of all Turkish delight samples. Additionally, halvah samples produced with the reconstituted soapwort powder were the most preferred samples in sensorial analysis and these samples were determined as the best considering the structural values.