Photon phase shift imaging research on frequency domain diffuse optic tomography

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Optical and Quantum Electronics, vol.53, no.5, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 53 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11082-021-02933-9
  • Journal Name: Optical and Quantum Electronics
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Bbiomedical optic imaging, Frequency domain (FD) diffuse optic tomography (DOT), Inverse problem solution, Laser tomography, Photon phase shift imaging (PPSI)
  • Akdeniz University Affiliated: Yes


© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.Diffuse optic imaging is an important biomedical optic research tool. Diffuse optic tomography (DOT) modality needs progressive philosophical approaches for scientific contribution. Technological developments and philosophical approaches should both go forward. Phase-shift based frequency domain diffuse optical tomography (FDDOT) method was well established in the literature. The instruments were tested for brain neurofunctional imaging. A mixture of AC laser intensity and phase data were used at these works. According to those works, deep tissue resolution was improved by only using phase data. Because phase data is only related to the photon mean free path in imaging tissue media. Besides this advantage, laser intensity data is also affected by noisy background light and electrical artifacts. Another most important advantage of only using phase data can be explained as time-resolved temporal change which can be directly related to the phase shift of modulated frequency source. In this work, the FDDOT imaging method which uses phase shift data were tested for simulation. Laser source-driven forward model problem weight matrix simulation data was given to the simple pseudo-inverse-based inverse problem solution algorithm for one inclusion example. The inclusion image was reconstructed and demonstrated successfully. Forward model problem weight functions inside the tissue simulation media were calculated and used based on the phase shifts at the same core modulation frequency. 100 MHz modulation frequency was selected due to its FDDOT standard. 13 sources and 13 detectors were placed on the back-reflected imaging surface. 40 x, y, z cartesian coordinate grid elements were used in the image reconstruction algorithm. Photon absorption coefficient: μa = 0.1 cm−1, and scattering coefficient: μs = 100 cm−1 values were set for simulation background. One inclusion object was embedded inside the background imaging tissue simulation environment. x, y, z cartesian coordinate grid sizes were selected for 1 μm for each direction. Photon phase shift fluencies were added to the forward model problem. The forward model problem was built according to the frequency domain photon migration diffusion equation (DE) approximation. The pseudoinverse mathematical inverse problem solution function was applied to test the results. The embedded inclusion object was reconstructed successfully with the high-resolution image quality. The philosophical approach has future promising DOT imaging capability. The phase shift version of the FDDOT modality has an important advantage for future purposes.