Background: Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative, microaerophilic rod-shaped bacterium that lives beneath the gastric mucosal layers, on the surface of epithelial cells. Gastric infection with this organism causes inflammation of the gastric mucosa, which can lead to gastritis, duodenal or gastric ulcers and even in rare cases to gastric carcinoma or MALT lymphoma. Approximately 50% of the population of the entire world is believed to be infected with H. pylori, but the exact route of transmission is still uncertain. It has been speculated that the cervix, with its endocervical columnar epithelium and acidic mucous layer, might provide a suitable environment for H. pylori. H. pylori might be a pathogenic agent for cervical infection. In order to address this issue we studied H. pylori in the endocervical tissue. Methods: To investigate our hypothesis, we examined cervical tissue using PCR, culture, and Gram stain. Thirty-three cervices from women who underwent total hysterectomy for noninvasive noncervical benign uterine diseases were analyzed in this study. Twenty-one patients had cervicitis and 12 patients were included as controls. Results: Of the 29 patients studied, none showed evidence of H. pylori infection. H. pylori was not detected by PCR, histology, or culture. Conclusions: We could not detect H. pylori in the cervix of patients with cervicitis. H. pylori-infected patients' cervices remain to be investigated, and a larger study is needed to draw firm conclusions. Copyright (C) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.