Volcanic activity in the Ayas-Güdül-Celtikci region began by Oligocene (?)-early Miocene time and persisted until the end of early Pliocene time. It commenced with andesitic breccias and lavas at the base of the series and evolved through the deposition of ignimbritic and laharic volcanic material toward intermediate levels of the succession. Caldera formation followed this period of volcanic activity. Ephemeral lakes covering the region caused the subaqueous extrusion of the latest lavas during this period of activity. Afterward, limnic and fluvial sedimentation Occurred in the region during a period of volcanic quiescence. This mid-late Miocene deposition was followed by new basaltic activity. The volcanism was controlled by conjugate fault sets, N45W and N15E, representing pure-shear stress in a N20W direction, from the late Oligocene to the end of the early Pliocene. Normal dip-slip faults having a N55E trend were created by local N25W tension, presumably because of the North Anatolian fault, after early Pliocene time. © 1996 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.