Biomonitoring of heavy metals by Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf in Aksaray city, Turkey


Işik V., Aksoy A., Vardar Ç., Yıldız A.

EQA-INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY, vol.56, pp.52-61, 2023 (ESCI)

Abstract

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MixedMixedMixed air pollutantspollutants pollutants are areconsideredconsideredconsidered amajormajor causecause causeof damage damage damagein living living organisms organisms .Air pollutionpollution andand associated associated associatedassociatedassociated heavyheavyheavy metalmetalmetalmetal pollutionpollution is aserious environmental environmental environmental environmentalenvironmentalenvironmentalenvironmental problem problemproblem problem .OneOneOneof the methodsmethodsmethodsmethodsmethods used to monitormonitor monitor heavyheavyheavy metalmetalmetalmetal pollutionpollution is the methodmethodmethodmethodmethod of transplantingtransplanting transplantingtransplanting transplanting transplanting lichen lichenlichenlichenlichensamples samplessamples samples by the ‘bag ‘bag technique’ technique’ technique’ technique’ technique’ .The objectiveobjective objective objectiveof thisthis study studywaswas to determine determinedetermine determinedeterminethe air pollution pollution pollutionpollutionlevel level of Aksaray AksarayAksarayandand to generategenerate generategenerategeneratethe air pollution pollution pollutionmapmap of thisthis city citycityby using using Pseudevernia PseudeverniaPseudeverniaPseudevernia PseudeverniaPseudeverniaPseudevernia Pseudeverniafurfuracea furfuracea furfuraceafurfuraceafurfuracea furfuraceafurfuracea(L .)ZopfZopf Zopfas abioindicator bioindicatorbioindicator bioindicatorbioindicatorbioindicator .The Thestudy studyarea waswas characterizedcharacterizedcharacterized characterizedcharacterized characterizedcharacterized by the presence presencepresence presencepresencepresenceof numerous numerous industrial, industrial, industrial, heatingheatingheatingheating heatingactivitiesactivitiesactivities activities andand traffic traffic .LichenLichen Lichensamplessamples samplessamples werewere werecollectedcollected collectedcollected from unpolluted unpollutedunpolluted unpolluted area areaareaat Yapraklı Yapraklı Yapraklı Yapraklı Mountains, Mountains, Mountains,Mountains, Mountains, Çankırı Çankırı Çankırı Çankırı in NovemberNovember NovemberNovember 2002 2002 and transplanted transplanted transplantedtransplantedtransplanted to 7different differentdifferent differentdifferentlocalitieslocalitieslocalitieslocalities localities localities in Aksaray AksarayAksaray.They TheyTheywerewere retrievedretrievedretrieved retrievedretrieved following an exposure exposure exposureof 3and 6monthsmonthsmonthsmonths months.HeavyHeavyHeavy metal, metal,metal, Cu, Cd, Cd,Mn ,Ni, Pb andand Zn, contentscontentscontentscontentscontentscontentscontents werewere weredetermined determineddetermined determineddetermined by using using inductively inductively inductively inductivelycoupled coupled plasma plasmamassmass spectrometry spectrometry spectrometry spectrometry spectrometry spectrometry(ICP -MS)MS) .The Thechlorophyll chlorophyll aand bcontents contents contents werewere determined determined determined by using DMSO methodmethod method method.AccordingAccording According According to the heavy heavy heavymetalmetal metal analysisanalysis analysis results resultsof P.furfuracea furfuraceafurfuraceafurfuraceafurfuracea furfuracea ,air pollution pollution pollutionin Aksaray owing to industrial industrialactivities,activities,activities, activities, heatingheatingheatingheating heating andand traffic traffic showed showedshowedshowed various various changes changes changesin different different differentdifferentstations stationsstations andand periodsperiods studied studied .HeavyHeavyHeavy Heavymetalmetalmetalmetal concentrationsconcentrationsconcentrationsconcentrationsconcentrationsconcentrationsconcentrations concentrations in various stations stations stationsshowed showed showed obvious obvious differences differences differencesdifferencesdifferences accordingaccordingaccordingaccording to determination determinationdetermination determination determinationdetermination methodsmethodsmethodsmethodsmethodsmethods applied applied applied in thethetheexperiments experiments experiments .The Theresults indicated indicated that lichens lichens had agreat potential potential potentialpotential potential of bioindicator bioindicator bioindicator capacity capacity capacity capacitycapacity.