Energy input-output analysis in Turkish agriculture

Ozkan B., Akcaoz H., FERT C.

RENEWABLE ENERGY, vol.29, no.1, pp.39-51, 2004 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 29 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2004
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/s0960-1481(03)00135-6
  • Journal Name: RENEWABLE ENERGY
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.39-51
  • Keywords: energy, input-output, energy ratio, agriculture, Turkey
  • Akdeniz University Affiliated: Yes


The objective of this study is to determine the energy use in the Turkish agricultural sector for the period of 1975-2000. In the study, the inputs in the calculation of energy use in agriculture include both human and animal labor, machinery, electricity, diesel oil, fertilizers, seeds, and 36 agricultural commodities were included in the output total. Energy values were calculated by multiplying the amounts of inputs and outputs by their energy equivalents with the use of related conversion factors. The output-input ratio is determined by dividing the output value by the input value. The results indicated that total energy input increased from 17.4 GJ/ha in 1975 to 47.4 GJ/ha in the year 2000. Similarly, total output energy rose from 38.8 to 55.8 GJ/ha in the same period. As a consequence, the output input ratio was estimated to be 2.23 in 1975 and 1.18 in 2000. This result shows that there was a decrease in the output-input energy ratio. It indicates that the use of inputs in Turkish agricultural production was not accompanied by the same result in the final product. This can lead to problems associated with these inputs, such as global warming, nutrient loading and pesticide pollution. Therefore, there is a need to pursue a new policy to force producers to undertake energy efficient practices to establish sustainable production systems. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.