This paper presents background information about the Agricultural Extension System (AES) in Turkey. It is concerned with the institutions, extension approaches and activities in the AES. In addition, some critical issues in public extension system are discussed. The AES, and the actors who provide extension and other services, are in both public institutions and private organizations. Agricultural extension activities are mainly performed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA). In addition, some farmers' associations, agricultural cooperatives, charities and several marketing firms have been involved in farmer training and extension activities. Mass media are also part of the AES. Overall, extension activities have been mainly organized and delivered by public institutions. The private sector's extension activities have only recently been developed, are limited in terms of coverage area, and are product specific. © 2011 Academic Journals.