The effect of modulation frequency for frequency domain diffuse optic tomography (FDDOT)

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OPTICAL AND QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, vol.54, no.3, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 54 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11082-022-03595-x
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Diffuse optic tomography (DOT), Frequency domain diffuse optic tomography (FDDOT), Modulation frequency, Phase delay, SPECTROSCOPY, INSTRUMENT, DESIGN, IMAGER
  • Akdeniz University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, it was illustrated that extremely high frequency (EHF) Ka-band (26.5-40 GHz) modulated frequency domain diffuse optic tomography biomedical optic imaging modality is superior to the generally accepted 100 MHz modulation frequency case. The effect of modulation frequency was shown with reconstructed images for two different modulation frequency simulation cases. Ka EHF-band frequency range covers 26.5-40 GHz. In this simulation study 33 GHz modulation frequency was selected. Forward model problem photon fluencies were generated for 30 equally separated sequential phase delays. Each phase delay has different photon fluence distributions inside the imaging geometry. 3.1 cm grid sizes were set in the x, y, z cartesian grid coordinate system with 31 x 31 x 31 xyz grid elements. To test the advantage of EHF-band modulation frequecy, inverse problem solution algorithm was done and inclusion images were reconstructed for each modulation frequency simulation case. Original inclusion was embedded inside the imaging geometry at (15-16, 15-16, 15-16) x, y, z coordinate system in the three-dimensional (3D) cubic spatial form. Homogeneuous tissue background photon absorption, scattering, and anisotropy coefficients were selected as mu(a) = 0.1 cm(-1), mu(s) = 100 cm(-1), and g = 0.9. Four sources and four detectors were placed on the back-reflection geometry. Forward model problem was built between sources, voxels, and detectors. Forward model problem photon fluencies were generated based on the diffusion equation approximation of the radiative transport equation formula in the frequency domain. Original inclusion was reconstructed by simply applying mathematical pseudoinverse problem solution function. It was observed that, reconstructed inclusion image at the 33 GHz Ka-band modulation frequency simulation case is superior to the reconstructed inclusion image at the 100 MHz modulation frequency simualtion case. Since there are too many frequency selection opportunities, the best Ka-band frequency was selected to demonstrate here. Thus, 33 GHz and 100 MHz modulation frequencies were tested against each other. These two different electronic modulation frequencies were tested and compared with each other.