Liquid-solid extraction of soluble solids and total phenolic compounds of carob bean (Ceratonia siliqua L.)

Turhan I., Tetik N., Aksu M., Karhan M., Certel M.

JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, vol.29, no.5, pp.498-507, 2006 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier


Total mass transfer coefficients of soluble solids (SS) and total phenolic compounds (TPC) were determined during carob extraction. The Arrhenius equation was applied to determine the efficiency of process temperature, as an alternative approach to Fick's second law. Carob pod, cut into small pieces (internal diameter: 5-7 mm), was contacted with water in batch system to extract SS by continuous circulation of water at different temperatures (20, 50 and 85C). The process was also performed at 85C using an industrial-scale extractor. Activation energies for both SS and TPC diffusions were calculated as 5.84 and 0.072 x 10(-3) kJ/mol, respectively. As expected, higher extract concentrations were achieved with higher temperatures. In contrast, high extraction temperature, even at 85C, did not cause hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation. As the increase in temperature does not affect formation of HMF during carob pod extraction, higher operational temperatures such as 80-90C may be applied to obtain higher solute concentrations.