Determination of D&C Red 33 and Patent Blue V Azo dyes using an impressive electrochemical sensor based on carbon paste electrode modified with ZIF-8/g-C3N4/Co and ionic liquid in mouthwash and toothpaste as real samples

Karimi-Maleh H., Darabi R., Shabani-Nooshabadi M., Baghayeri M., Karimi F., Rouhi J., ...More

Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol.162, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 162
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.fct.2022.112907
  • Journal Name: Food and Chemical Toxicology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, EMBASE, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Cosmetics, D&C red 33, Electrochemical sensor, ZIF-8/g-C3N4/Co
  • Akdeniz University Affiliated: Yes


© 2022 Elsevier LtdSynthetic azo dyes are widely used in a variety of industries, but many of them pose a risk to human health, particularly when consumed in large quantities. As a result, their existence in products should be closely monitored. D&C red 33 and Patent Blue V are mostly used in cosmetics, especially in toothpaste and mouthwashes. A novel carbon paste electrode modified with ZIF-8/g-C3N4/Co nanocomposite and 1-methyl-3-butylimidazolium bromide as an ionic liquid was employed as a highly sensitive reproducible electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous determination of these common dyes. ZIF structure has unique properties such as high surface area, suitable conductivity, and excellent porosity. The electrochemical behavior of the suggested electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). To characterize the synthesized nanocomposites, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were applied to investigate the structure of nanocomposites. Under the optimized conditions, the modified sensor offered a wide linear concentration range 0.08–10 μM (R2 = 0.9906) and 10–900 μM (R2 = 0.9932) with a low limit of detection of 0.034 μM. The value of diffusion coefficient (D), and the electron transfer coefficient (α) was calculated to be 310 × 10−5, and 0.9 respectively. This technique offered a successful performance for the determination of target analyte in the real samples with acceptable results between 96% and 107%.