Effects of mulching and cover crop on weed population in citrus orchard in Cukurova Region of Turkey


KİTİŞ Y. E., Kolören O., Uygur N.

European Weed Research Society 14th EWRS Symposium, Hamar, Norway, 17 - 21 June 2007, pp.98

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Summary Text
  • City: Hamar
  • Country: Norway
  • Page Numbers: pp.98
  • Akdeniz University Affiliated: No

Abstract

 
   

Turkey is one of the important citrus producer in the world. Weeds are serious problems as a result of intensive production in Cukurova Region of Turkey. The cover of weeds can be reached up to 49 % because of irrigation, mild climate and rainy weather in spite of weed control (Uygur, 1985). The most preferable method for controlling weed in citrus growing areas is herbicide. But the chemicals cause significant problem such as herbicide resistant and pollution. Because of this all negative reasons we investigated alternative weed control methods such as mulching and cover crop on weed population in this study. The experiments were conducted on a clay loam in newly established citrus orchard in Plant Protection Research Area at Cukurova University-Adana in 2004-2005. Common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) was chosen as cover crop between rows while black polyethylene (P.E.) and 3 different thickness black geotextile materials were used for mulching on rows. Thickness of P.E. mulch in 2004 and 2005 was 0.04 mm and 0.1 mm respectively. 0.38 mm, 0.58 mm and 0.72 mm were other geotextile mulch thickness both of years. Mowing, herbicide and weedy control were other applications on rows. In treatments randomized complete block design was used with four replications for cover crop treatment and five replications for mulching. Plot size was 145 m2 for cover crop and 24 m2 for mulching and other treatments on rows. Seeds of cover crops were sown 140 kg/ha. Cover crop treatments included weedy check. Mulch materials were applied in rows 160 cm apart. When the cover of weeds reached 15 % herbicide (Glyphosate) was applied at 6000cc/ha. Mowing treatment was applied when the weeds lenght reached at 20 cm. 6 and 1 number a 1 m2 quadrat was permanently placed for each plot of cover crop and mulch treatments respectively. After emergence, weeds were counted at 15 days intervals at the quadrats and % cover of weeds was determined at all plots. Lenght of Vicia sativa L. and dominant weed species was also determined. At the end of the vegetation of common vetch, biomass of Vicia sativa L. and weeds were determined. Common vetch and weeds were collected from one random 1m2 quadrats within each plot and weighed, after that oven dried at 65 °C and weighed again. Soil and air temperatures were monitored hourly by a datalogger placed in the field. Soil temperature probes were placed at a depth of 10 cm. Since experimental area was newly established, fruit product was not determined, but length and stem thickness of citrus were determined. As a result of the experiment, cover crop supressed weed population 64 % and 38 % in 2004-2005 respectively. In mulching applied rows in 2004 and 2005 no weeds emerged any of geotextile material. On the other hand, P.E., herbicide and mowing, controlled the weeds in 2004; 99 %, 87 % and 17 %, in 2005; 99 %, 91 % and 18 % respectively. All mulch treatments increased soil temperature at 2 to 5 °C  when compared to the nonmulched control. In experimental area 39 and 37 weed species were determined in 2004 and 2005 respectively. Mulching, herbicide and mowing more increase citrus lenght and stem thickness than weedy control. According to this data; weedy control, mowing, herbicide, P.E. mulch, geotextile (0.38 mm thickness), geotextile (0.58 mm thickness) and geotextile (0.72 mm thickness) increased citrus height respectively 13.6 %, 18.7 %, 30.4 %, 43.0 %, 35.3 %, 34.4 %, 37.2 %  in 2004 and 35.6 %, 68.2 %, 79.8 %, 89.5 %, 88.2 %, 88.0 %, 82.8 %  in 2005. All treatments of same order increased stem thickness respectively 29.6 %, 48.1 %, 52.4 %, 68.3 %, 73.4 %, 69.0 %, 60.5 % in 2004 and 43.1 %, 66.1 %, 105 %, 96.1 %, 99.8 %, 86.9 %, 90.7 % in 2005.

Turkey is one of the important citrus producer in the world. Weeds are serious problems as a result of intensive production in Cukurova Region of Turkey. The cover of weeds can be reached up to 49 % because of irrigation, mild climate and rainy weather in spite of weed control (Uygur, 1985). The most preferable method for controlling weed in citrus growing areas is herbicide. But the chemicals cause significant problem such as herbicide resistant and pollution. Because of this all negative reasons we investigated alternative weed control methods such as mulching and cover crop on weed population in this study. The experiments were conducted on a clay loam in newly established citrus orchard in Plant Protection Research Area at Cukurova University-Adana in 2004-2005. Common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) was chosen as cover crop between rows while black polyethylene (P.E.) and 3 different thickness black geotextile materials were used for mulching on rows. Thickness of P.E. mulch in 2004 and 2005 was 0.04 mm and 0.1 mm respectively. 0.38 mm, 0.58 mm and 0.72 mm were other geotextile mulch thickness both of years. Mowing, herbicide and weedy control were other applications on rows. In treatments randomized complete block design was used with four replications for cover crop treatment and five replications for mulching. Plot size was 145 m2 for cover crop and 24 m2 for mulching and other treatments on rows. Seeds of cover crops were sown 140 kg/ha. Cover crop treatments included weedy check. Mulch materials were applied in rows 160 cm apart. When the cover of weeds reached 15 % herbicide (Glyphosate) was applied at 6000cc/ha. Mowing treatment was applied when the weeds lenght reached at 20 cm. 6 and 1 number a 1 m2 quadrat was permanently placed for each plot of cover crop and mulch treatments respectively. After emergence, weeds were counted at 15 days intervals at the quadrats and % cover of weeds was determined at all plots. Lenght of Vicia sativa L. and dominant weed species was also determined. At the end of the vegetation of common vetch, biomass of Vicia sativa L. and weeds were determined. Common vetch and weeds were collected from one random 1m2 quadrats within each plot and weighed, after that oven dried at 65 °C and weighed again. Soil and air temperatures were monitored hourly by a datalogger placed in the field. Soil temperature probes were placed at a depth of 10 cm. Since experimental area was newly established, fruit product was not determined, but length and stem thickness of citrus were determined. As a result of the experiment, cover crop supressed weed population 64 % and 38 % in 2004-2005 respectively. In mulching applied rows in 2004 and 2005 no weeds emerged any of geotextile material. On the other hand, P.E., herbicide and mowing, controlled the weeds in 2004; 99 %, 87 % and 17 %, in 2005; 99 %, 91 % and 18 % respectively. All mulch treatments increased soil temperature at 2 to 5 °C  when compared to the nonmulched control. In experimental area 39 and 37 weed species were determined in 2004 and 2005 respectively. Mulching, herbicide and mowing more increase citrus lenght and stem thickness than weedy control. According to this data; weedy control, mowing, herbicide, P.E. mulch, geotextile (0.38 mm thickness), geotextile (0.58 mm thickness) and geotextile (0.72 mm thickness) increased citrus height respectively 13.6 %, 18.7 %, 30.4 %, 43.0 %, 35.3 %, 34.4 %, 37.2 %  in 2004 and 35.6 %, 68.2 %, 79.8 %, 89.5 %, 88.2 %, 88.0 %, 82.8 %  in 2005. All treatments of same order increased stem thickness respectively 29.6 %, 48.1 %, 52.4 %, 68.3 %, 73.4 %, 69.0 %, 60.5 % in 2004 and 43.1 %, 66.1 %, 105 %, 96.1 %, 99.8 %, 86.9 %, 90.7 % in 2005.