Biogeographically, Anatolia harbours a rich diversity of short-horned grasshoppers (Orthoptera, Caelifera). The number of species recorded from Anatolia so far stands at 300. They inhabit diverse habitats ranging from arid Eremial to Euro-Siberian-like montane meadows, aligning with the topographical and climatological heterogeneity of Anatolia. Alongside some swarming species, the pest potential of several pullulating species needs attention. This is especially important concerning global warming, a scenario expected to be more severe in the Northern Mediterranean Basin in general and Anatolia specifically. A faunal list of biogeographic Anatolia, the area extending from the Aegean Sea in the west to the intermountain basin of the Caucasus in the northeast, the lowlands of Lake Urmia in the east, and Mesopotamia in the southeast, was developed. The recorded species were classified according to the phytogeographical provinces of Anatolia. Distributions of the species with the potential for pullulating were modelled using ecological-niche-modelling approaches for the present and future. The results have the potential to lead to the development of a concept that merges biogeography and the pest potential of certain Anatolian grasshopper species. Our results reveal the following: (i) Acrididae and Pamphagidae are the most diverse families represented in Anatolia; (ii) roughly 40% of Caelifera and 71% of Pamphagidae are endemics, suggesting Anatolia is a biodiversity hotspot; (iii) according to Caelifera diversity, the phytogeographical provinces of Anatolia follow an order of Irano-Anatolia, Euro-Siberia, Mediterranean, and Mesopotamia; and (iv) based on ecological modelling and personal observations, Dociostaurus maroccanus, Locusta migratoria, Calliptamus italicus, Heteracris pterosticha, Notostaurus anatolicus, Oedipoda miniata, and O. schochii should be monitored regarding their pest potential.