Optimization of energy consumption and its effect on the energy use efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of wheat production in Turkey

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Özçatalbaş O., Imran M.

Discover Sustainability, vol.2, pp.2-28, 2021 (Peer-Reviewed Journal)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 2
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Journal Name: Discover Sustainability
  • Journal Indexes: Other Indexes
  • Page Numbers: pp.2-28
  • Akdeniz University Affiliated: Yes


This study aimed to model energy use, energy efficiency, and greenhouse gas emissions in rain-fed wheat production by using a nonparametric data envelopment analysis (DEA) method. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with 140 wheat farmers in 4 districts of Antalya Province. The energy inputs (independent variables) were human labor, seeds, chemical fertilizers, herbicides, and diesel fuel, and the energy output was the dependent variable. The results showed that the average energy consumption and the output energy for the studied wheat production system were 21. 07GJ ha−1 and 50. 99 GJ ha−1, respectively, and the total GHG emissions were calculated to be 592.12 kg CO2eq ha−1. Chemical fertilizer has the highest share of energy consumption and total GHG emissions. Based on the results from DEA, the technical efficiency of the farmers was found to be 0.81, while pure technical and scale efficiencies were 0.65 and 0.76, respectively. The results also highlighted that there is a potential opportunity to save approximately 14% (2.93 GJ ha−1) of the total energy consumption and consequently a 17% reduction in GHG emissions by following the optimal amounts of energy consumption while keeping the wheat yield constant. Efficient use of energy and reduction in GHG emissions will lead to resource efficiency and sustainable production, which is the main aim of the green economy.