A Higher-Order Galerkin Time Discretization and Numerical Comparisons for Two Models of HIV Infection

Attaullah A., YÜZBAŞI Ş., Alyobi S., Yassen M. F., Weera W.

Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine, vol.2022, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier


© 2022 Attaullah et al.Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection affects the immune system, particularly white blood cells known as CD4+ T-cells. HIV destroys CD4+ T-cells and significantly reduces a human's resistance to viral infectious diseases as well as severe bacterial infections, which can lead to certain illnesses. The HIV framework is defined as a system of nonlinear first-order ordinary differential equations, and the innovative Galerkin technique is used to approximate the solutions of the model. To validate the findings, solve the model employing the Runge-Kutta (RK) technique of order four. The findings of the suggested techniques are compared with the results obtained from conventional schemes such as MuHPM, MVIM, and HPM that exist in the literature. Furthermore, the simulations are performed with different time step sizes, and the accuracy is measured at various time intervals. The numerical computations clearly demonstrate that the Galerkin scheme, in contrast to the Runge-Kutta scheme, provides incredibly precise solutions at relatively large time step sizes. A comparison of the solutions reveals that the obtained results through the Galerkin scheme are in fairly good agreement with the RK4 scheme in a given time interval as compared to other conventional schemes. Moreover, having performed various numerical tests for assessing the efficiency and computational cost (in terms of time) of the suggested schemes, it is observed that the Galerkin scheme is noticeably slower than the Runge-Kutta scheme. On the other hand, this work is also concerned with the path tracking and damped oscillatory behaviour of the model with a variable supply rate for the generation of new CD4+ T-cells (based on viral load concentration) and the HIV infection incidence rate. Additionally, we investigate the influence of various physical characteristics by varying their values and analysing them using graphs. The investigations indicate that the lateral system ensured more accurate predictions than the previous model.