In vitro genotoxicity testing of carvacrol and thymol using the micronucleus and mouse lymphoma assays


Maisanaba S., Prieto A. I., Puerto M., Gutierrez-Praena D., Demir E., Marcos R., ...More

MUTATION RESEARCH-GENETIC TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MUTAGENESIS, vol.784, pp.37-44, 2015 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 784
  • Publication Date: 2015
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2015.05.005
  • Journal Name: MUTATION RESEARCH-GENETIC TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MUTAGENESIS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.37-44
  • Keywords: Carvacrol, Thymol, Micronucleus test, Mouse lymphoma assay, Food packaging, PLANT ESSENTIAL OILS, SALVIA-OFFICINALIS, DNA-DAMAGE, CELLS, ANTIOXIDANT, SALMONELLA, ABERRATION, INDUCTION, VOLATILES, TOXICITY
  • Akdeniz University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Currently, antimicrobial additives derived from essential oils (Eos) extracted from plants or spices, such as Origanum vulgare, are used in food packaging. Thymol and carvacrol, the major EO compounds of O. vulgare, have demonstrated their potential use as active additives. These new applications use high concentrations, thereby increasing the concern regarding their toxicological profile and especially their genotoxic risk. The aim of this work was to investigate the potential in vitro genotoxicity of thymol (0-250 mu M) and carvacrol (0-2500 mu M) at equivalent doses to those used in food packaging. The micronucleus (MN) test and the mouse lymphoma (MLA) assay on L5178Y/Tk(+/-) mouse lymphoma cells were used. The negative results for thymol with the MN with and without the S9 fraction and also with the MLA assay reinforce the view that this compound is not genotoxic in mammalian cells. However, carvacrol presented slight genotoxic effects, but only in the MN test at the highest concentration assayed (700 mu M) and in the absence of metabolic activation. The lack of genotoxic response in the MLA assay after 4 and 24h of exposure indicates a low genotoxic potential for carvacrol. Alternatively, the general negative findings observed in both assays suggest that the MN results of carvacrol are marginal data without biological relevance. These results can be useful to identify the appropriate concentrations of these substances to be used as additives in food packaging. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.