Cultural Influence on Crowding Norms in Outdoor Recreation: A Comparative Analysis of Visitors to National Parks in Turkey and the United States

Sayan S., Krymkowski D. H., Manning R. E., Valliere W. A., Rovelstad E. L.

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, vol.52, no.2, pp.493-502, 2013 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 52 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2013
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00267-013-0076-y
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.493-502
  • Keywords: Crowding norms, National parks, Culture, Statistical comparison of norm curves, Turkey, United States, ENCOUNTER NORMS, MANAGEMENT ACTIONS, STANDARDS, QUALITY, PERCEPTIONS, SETTINGS, BEHAVIOR
  • Akdeniz University Affiliated: Yes


Formulation of standards of quality in parks and outdoor recreation can be guided by normative theory and related empirical methods. We apply this approach to measure the acceptability of a range of use levels in national parks in Turkey and the United States. Using statistical methods for comparing norm curves across contexts, we find significant differences among Americans, British, and Turkish respondents. In particular, American and British respondents were substantially less tolerant of seeing other visitors and demonstrated higher norm intensity than Turkish respondents. We discuss the role of culture in explaining these findings, paying particular attention to Turkey as a traditional "contact culture" and the conventional emphasis on solitude and escape in American environmental history and policy. We conclude with a number of recommendations to stimulate more research on the relationship between culture and outdoor recreation.