The aim of the present study is to test whether ultrasound therapy of muscles denervated by nerve injury would improve the quality of their reinnervation by reduction of the collateral axonal branching at the lesion site and poly-innervation degree at the neuromuscular junctions. After transection and suture of the buccal branch of the facial nerve, pulsed or continuous type of ultrasound therapy was applied to the paralyzed whisker pad muscles of rats in the course of 2 months. Instead of reduction, we found a significant increase in the collateral axonal branching after continuous ultrasound therapy when compared to the branching determined after pulsed or sham ultrasound therapy. Both types of ultrasound therapy also failed to reduce the proportion of polyinnervated end plates in the reinnervated facial muscles. Accordingly, continuous ultrasound therapy failed to restore any parameter of the motor performance of the vibrissal hairs. Application of pulsed ultrasound therapy promoted slight improvements of the functional parameters angular velocity and acceleration. The inhomogeneous structural and functional results achieved after both types of ultrasound therapy let us conclude that further studies are required to evaluate its effects on peripheral nerve regeneration. Anat Rec, 302:1314-1324, 2019. (c) 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.