The Effect of Various Sol-Gel Doping on Epoxy Resin


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Mutlu İ. H., Ramazanoğlu M. K., Yıldırım O., Çölkesen P.

JORNOL OF MATERİALS AND ELECRONİC DEVİCES, vol.4, no.1, pp.34-39, 2022 (Peer-Reviewed Journal)

Abstract

We have studied the mechanical and electrical properties of several sol-gel mixtures with the epoxy resin (Duratek DTE 1200) for the first time. The spectrum of the samples ranges from 5% and 10% to 15% of the volume of sol-gel to the host resin. These sol-gel samples are pure BaZrO2, Mn, and Zn doped BaTiO2 and La-Sr half-half doped YZr2O7. These samples were prepared by the sol-gel technique and added to the epoxy resin with the volumes mentioned, including the hardener. The effects caused by the additionof the sol-gel samples into the epoxy resin were investigated with a micro-hardness tester. The effects on the electrical properties of the samples were studied using the room temperature dielectric measurements. Polarized light microscopy technique was used to define the change in the microstructures of the epoxy with these dopants. We have observed an increase in the hardness of the epoxy resin with an increase in the quantity of sol-gel mixtures for BaZrO2, Mn and Zn-doped BaTiO2 while a decrease was observed for La-Sr half-half doped YZr2O7. The dielectric spectrum measurements over these samples showed a correlation with structural changes. The samples which got harder showed a dynamical dielectric behavior with some relaxation spectrum while the othersample which got softer became more conductive and did not show any relaxation signature.Keywords:Sol-gel technique, Epoxy resin, Doping, Mechanical and electrical propertiesSubmission Date: 04November 2022Acceptance Date: 08December 2022*Corresponding author: ibrahimmutlu@akdeniz.edu.tr1.IntroductionThe production of composite epoxy resin with sol-gel solutions is more advantageous than the conventional solid-state techniques even for production involving nanoparticles. This is mostly due to the higher possibility of producing homogeneous solutions with the sol-gel method. Here, the sol-gel process involves hydrolysis and condensation reactions with hydrolysable metal alkoxides known as alkoxysilanes. When using organo-alkoxysilane as the coupling agent in sol-gel solutions, stronger atomic bonds can be created between organic and inorganic phases isotropically which is crucial for increasing and improving the mechanical and electrical properties of the produced sample [1]. The main idea for the use of composite materials is to take advantage of the best properties of the polymeric materials including inorganic structures while at the same time reducing the disadvantages of the polymers [2]. These disadvantages are mostly related to the mechanical properties of the polymers such as weakness, softness, etc. Thus, the combination of sol-gel solutions with resin possesses more industrial application potential by overcoming these known disadvantages. With this method,
We have studied the mechanical and electrical properties of several sol-gel mixtures with the epoxy resin (Duratek DTE 1200) for the first time. The spectrum of the samples ranges from 5% and 10% to 15% of the volume of sol-gel to the host resin. These sol-gel samples are pure BaZrO2, Mn, and Zn doped BaTiO2 and La-Sr half-half doped YZr2O7. These samples were prepared by the sol-gel technique and added to the epoxy resin with the volumes mentioned, including the hardener. The effects caused by the additionof the sol-gel samples into the epoxy resin were investigated with a micro-hardness tester. The effects on the electrical properties of the samples were studied using the room temperature dielectric measurements. Polarized light microscopy technique was used to define the change in the microstructures of the epoxy with these dopants. We have observed an increase in the hardness of the epoxy resin with an increase in the quantity of sol-gel mixtures for BaZrO2, Mn and Zn-doped BaTiO2 while a decrease was observed for La-Sr half-half doped YZr2O7. The dielectric spectrum measurements over these samples showed a correlation with structural changes. The samples which got harder showed a dynamical dielectric behavior with some relaxation spectrum while the othersample which got softer became more conductive and did not show any relaxation signature.Keywords:Sol-gel technique, Epoxy resin, Doping, Mechanical and electrical propertiesSubmission Date: 04November 2022Acceptance Date: 08December 2022*Corresponding author: ibrahimmutlu@akdeniz.edu.tr1.IntroductionThe production of composite epoxy resin with sol-gel solutions is more advantageous than the conventional solid-state techniques even for production involving nanoparticles. This is mostly due to the higher possibility of producing homogeneous solutions with the sol-gel method. Here, the sol-gel process involves hydrolysis and condensation reactions with hydrolysable metal alkoxides known as alkoxysilanes. When using organo-alkoxysilane as the coupling agent in sol-gel solutions, stronger atomic bonds can be created between organic and inorganic phases isotropically which is crucial for increasing and improving the mechanical and electrical properties of the produced sample [1]. The main idea for the use of composite materials is to take advantage of the best properties of the polymeric materials including inorganic structures while at the same time reducing the disadvantages of the polymers [2]. These disadvantages are mostly related to the mechanical properties of the polymers such as weakness, softness, etc. Thus, the combination of sol-gel solutions with resin possesses more industrial application potential by overcoming these known disadvantages. With this method,