From islet transplantation to beta-cell regeneration: an update on beta-cell-based therapeutic approaches in type 1 diabetes

Azad A., Altunbas H. A., MANGUOĞLU A. E.

Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol.19, no.3, pp.217-227, 2024 (ESCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 19 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/17446651.2024.2347263
  • Journal Name: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.217-227
  • Keywords: beta-cell protection, Beta-cell regeneration, immune modulation, stem cell differentiation, type 1 diabetes
  • Akdeniz University Affiliated: Yes


Introduction: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) mellitus is an autoimmune disease in which immune cells, predominantly effector T cells, destroy insulin-secreting beta-cells. Beta-cell destruction led to various consequences ranging from retinopathy and nephropathy to neuropathy. Different strategies have been developed to achieve normoglycemia, including exogenous glucose compensation, whole pancreas transplantation, islet transplantation, and beta-cell replacement. Areas covered: The last two decades of experience have shown that indigenous glucose compensation through beta-cell regeneration and protection is a peerless method for T1D therapy. Tremendous studies have tried to find an unlimited source for beta-cell regeneration, on the one hand, and beta-cell protection against immune attack, on the other hand. Recent advances in stem cell technology, gene editing methods, and immune modulation approaches provide a unique opportunity for both beta-cell regeneration and protection. Expert opinion: Pluripotent stem cell differentiation into the beta-cell is considered an unlimited source for beta-cell regeneration. Devising engineered pancreas-specific regulatory T cells using Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) technology potentiates an effective immune tolerance induction for beta-cell protection. Beta-cell regeneration using pluripotent stem cells and beta-cell protection using pancreas-specific engineered regulatory T cells promises to develop a curative protocol in T1D.