A new Cephalaria species (Dipsacaceae), C. elazigensis R.S. Gokturk & Sumbul, is described from Elazig, East Anatolia. A variety of this species, var. purpurea R.S. Gokturk & Sumbul, is also described from the same area. The morphological differences of the new taxa are compared with two related species, C stellipilis and C elmaliensis. Seed protein profiles of C elazigensis, C elazigensis var. purpurea, C stellipilis, and C elmaliensis were also analyzed by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). In addition, pollen structure was examined.