Two Micro-models of Tourism Capitalism and the (Re)Scaling of State-Business Relations

Erkus-Ozturk H., Terhorst P.

TOURISM GEOGRAPHIES, vol.14, no.3, pp.494-523, 2012 (SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 14 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2012
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/14616688.2011.610815
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.494-523
  • Keywords: (Re)scaling, tourism business associations, business systems, state types, tourism capitalism, Antalya, Turkey, INNOVATION, ECONOMIES, TURKEY
  • Akdeniz University Affiliated: Yes


This paper aims to show that (i) there are two micro-models of tourism capitalism in Antalya (Turkey) and (ii) different trajectories of (re) scaling of state-business relations form an integral part of each model of tourism capitalism. The paper bridges two debates in the literature that generally are very isolated from each other, namely those on state (re) scaling and variety of capitalism. Based on written documents and in-depth interviews with representatives of tourism associations, an enclave-tourism capitalism is distinguished from a disorganized tourism capitalism. The former is characterized by (i) local tourism-infrastructure associations and corporate company associations founded by central state and strong relations with each other, (ii) administrative customization, (iii) a mixture of a dominant developmental and a business-corporatist state, (iv) downward and upward scaling managed by central state and (v) a partly compartmentalized and partly collaborative business system. Disorganized tourism capitalism is characterized by (i) an organic tourism development, (ii) local voluntary business associations dominated by big hotels, (iii) administrative uniformity, (iv) a mixture of an arm's length and a particularistic state, (v) a fragmented and project-based business system and (vi) downward scaling managed by big tourism businesses.