Genome-based identification of beet curly top Iran virus infecting sugar beet in Turkey and investigation of its pathogenicity by agroinfection

YILDIRIM K., KAVAS M., Kaya R., SEÇGİN Z., Can C., Sevgen I., ...More

JOURNAL OF VIROLOGICAL METHODS, vol.300, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 300
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2021.114380
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Sugar beet, Beet curly top Iran virus, Turkey, Becurtovirus, Agroinfection, GEMINIVIRUS, RESISTANCE, PLANTS, DIVERSITY, PROPOSAL, GENERA, NUMBER
  • Akdeniz University Affiliated: Yes


Beet curly top disease (BCTD) is a yield-limiting viral infection of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) throughout the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Two virus species, belonging to two different genera of the family Geminiviridae (Curtovirus and Becurtovirus) had been described as the disease's causative agents on sugar beet. Despite the detection of the BCTD in some sugar beet fields of Turkey sixty years ago, the genome based characterization of BCTD-associated viruses have not been studied previously. In this study, 628 sugar beet plants exhibiting BCTD symptoms were collected from fourteen cities in central Anatolia, the major sugar beet production areas in Turkey. PCR assays of these samples using the respective Curtovirus and Becurtovirus genusspecific primers indicated that the Turkish sugar beet samples' viral sequences belong only to the genus Becurtovirus. The results of sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the partial genome of the virus obtained from fourteen cities confirmed that BCTD-associated virus in Turkish sugar beet fields is beet curly top Iran virus (BCTIV-Becurtovirus) species. The whole genome of the collected viruses from fourteen cities were amplified by the rolling circle amplification (RCA) and the five most phylogenetically diverse viruses obtained from Afyon, Ankara, Adapazari, Yozgat and Aksaray were sequenced. The results of whole genome sequence analysis indicated >98 % sequence identities with that of a BCTIV variants reported from Urmia province (bordering Turkey) of Iran. A virus genome from Yozgat city had a genomic sequence identity of >97 % with those of BCTIV isolated from cowpea, tomato, pepper and sugar beet in the northern part of Iran. These results suggested that the spread of BCTIV through the region could create a significant threat to the production of sugar beet as well as other agricultural crops. A tandem dimer of a BCTIV-Turkish variant isolated from Ankara city was cloned into Agrobacterium plasmid to be used for agro-infection studies. Agroinoculation of this construct on sugar beet leaves generated severe BCTD symptoms (84 %) which were also confirmed by RCA and qPCR analysis. These results constituted the first genome based characterization of BCTIV Turkish variants and the first report of BCTIV spreading out of Iran.