Human Placenta and Evolving Insights into Pathological Changes of Preeclampsia: A Comprehensive Review of the Last Decade


Chiorean D. M., Cobankent Aytekin E., Mitranovici M., Turdean S. G., Moharer M. S., Cotoi O. S., ...More

Fetal and Pediatric Pathology, vol.43, no.1, pp.33-46, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 43 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/15513815.2023.2274823
  • Journal Name: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.33-46
  • Keywords: disordered placental development, extravillous trophoblasts, placenta, Preeclampsia, spiral artery remodeling, trophectoderm
  • Akdeniz University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

The placenta, the foremost and multifaceted organ in fetal and maternal biology, is pivotal in facilitating optimal intrauterine fetal development. Remarkably, despite its paramount significance, the placenta remains enigmatic, meriting greater comprehension given its central influence on the health trajectories of both the fetus and the mother. Preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR), prevailing disorders of pregnancy, stem from compromised placental development. PE, characterized by heightened mortality and morbidity risks, afflicts 5–7% of global pregnancies, its etiology shrouded in ambiguity. Pertinent pathogenic hallmarks of PE encompass inadequate restructuring of uteroplacental spiral arteries, placental ischemia, and elevated levels of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), also recognized as soluble FMS-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1). During gestation, the placental derivation of sFlt-1 accentuates its role as an inhibitory receptor binding to VEGF-A and placental growth factor (PlGF), curtailing target cell accessibility. This review expounds upon the placenta’s defining cellular component of the trophoblast, elucidates the intricacies of PE pathogenesis, underscores the pivotal contribution of sFlt-1 to maternal pathology and fetal safeguarding, and surveys recent therapeutic strides witnessed in the past decade.