Nexus between Renewable Energy, Credit Gap Risk, Financial Development and R&D Expenditure: Panel ARDL Approach

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ÜNLÜ U., YILDIRIM F., Kuloğlu A., Ersoy E., Çetenak E. H.

Sustainability (Switzerland), vol.14, no.23, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 14 Issue: 23
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/su142316232
  • Journal Name: Sustainability (Switzerland)
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Aerospace Database, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Geobase, INSPEC, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: credit gap risk, financial development index, R&D expenditure, renewable energy
  • Akdeniz University Affiliated: Yes


© 2022 by the authors.In the study, we investigate the relationships between renewable energy consumption sub-indicators of G-8 countries and financial development, credit gap risk, and R&D expenditure from 1996 to 2018. The relationships among the variables in the study are analyzed by employing the Panel ARDL method and the Dumitrescu–Hurlin panel causality test. The cointegration relationships between the variables have been analyzed using the bounds test approach, and an unrestricted error correction model has been established. Contrary to previous studies in the renewable energy literature, this study employed the variable of credit gap risk. Therefore, we believe that this study will fill the gap in the literature and attract the attention of researchers and policymakers. The results indicate that increases in total demand for renewable energy positively affect the financial development of countries. Moreover, R&D expenditures increase as the demand for hydro energy and solar energy increases. This result indicates that wind power consumption has a short-term impact on R&D expenditure, and such an impact ceases to exist in the long run. According to the empirical research findings, the rise in demand for renewable energy may be a factor mitigating the credit gap risk of countries. In other words, the credit gap risk, which is considered a leading indicator of systemic banking crises, can be mitigated by the rise in the demand for renewable energy.