How to prepare head tissue-equivalent liquids for SAR calculations, dosimetry and hyperthermia researches at 900 and 1800 MHz GSM frequencies

Sorgucu U., DEVELİ İ., ÖZEN Ş.

RADIATION PROTECTION DOSIMETRY, vol.168, no.3, pp.365-373, 2016 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 168 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.1093/rpd/ncv351
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.365-373
  • Akdeniz University Affiliated: Yes


The potential harmful effect of electromagnetic fields on human health is an important issue that has been widely discussed in the scientific community. The investigation of temperature rise in human body following exposure to electromagnetic fields has been found impractical in many aspects. Therefore, fabrication of the tissue-equivalent liquids (TELs) is required. TELs have been widely employed in specific absorption rate calculations, dosimetry and hyperthermia researches. In this study, two separate head tissue-equivalent liquids (HELs) were prepared for 900 and 1800 MHz frequencies. The conductivity and relative permittivity of the HEL prepared for 900 MHz frequency were found to deviate from The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards at the rates of 6.20 and 2.70 %, whereas the HEL prepared for 1800 MHz applications exhibited 1.83 and 3.22 % deviations from IEEE standards, respectively. This study provides a method for researchers to prepare their own HELs in a practical way.