ADVANCES IN DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS, vol.2016, 2016 (SCI-Expanded)
In this paper, by using p-adic Volkenborn integral, and generating functions, we give some properties of the Bernstein basis functions, the Apostol-Daehee numbers and polynomials, Apostol-Bernoulli polynomials, some special numbers including the Stirling numbers, the Euler numbers, the Daehee numbers, and the Changhee numbers. By using an integral equation and functional equations of the generating functions and their partial differential equations (PDEs), we give a recurrence relation for the Apostol-Daehee polynomials. We also give some identities, relations, and integral representations for these numbers and polynomials. By using these relations, we compute these numbers and polynomials. We make further remarks and observations for special polynomials and numbers, which are used to study elementary word problems in engineering and in medicine.