Examining the expectations of healing care environment of hospitalized children with cancer based on Watson's theory of human caring

GÜRCAN M., Turan S.

Journal of Advanced Nursing, vol.77, no.8, pp.3472-3482, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 77 Issue: 8
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/jan.14934
  • Journal Name: Journal of Advanced Nursing
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Abstracts in Social Gerontology, AgeLine, CINAHL, Educational research abstracts (ERA), EMBASE, Gender Studies Database, MEDLINE, Psycinfo, Public Affairs Index
  • Page Numbers: pp.3472-3482
  • Keywords: cancer, child nursing, childhood illness, health promotion, holistic care, nursing theory, patient perspectives, practice nursing, qualitative approaches, ADOLESCENTS
  • Akdeniz University Affiliated: Yes


© 2021 John Wiley & Sons LtdAim: To describe the expectations of children with cancer about the healing care environment during hospitalization based on Watson's Theory of Human Caring. Design: A descriptive qualitative research design was used in this study. Methods: Data were collected between December 2019 and February 2020 from purposively selected children with cancer in a paediatric haematology and oncology clinic at a university hospital in Turkey. Twelve participants (7 females and 5 males) aged 10–17 were recruited to carry out individual semi-structured interviews. All interviews were recorded via a digital audio recorder and transcribed verbatim. The content analysis method was used to analyse the data. Findings: As a result of the analysis, three main themes with related sub-themes were identified that revealed the expectations of children with cancer: ‘healing care behaviors’, ‘creating the physical environment of the hospital’ and ‘support from the social environment’. Conclusion: Watson's Theory of Human Caring may be a useful and applicable guide for drawing a conceptual framework of the expectations of children with cancer regarding a healing care environment. The study revealed these children's need for humanistic, compassionate, honest and problem-focused care. In addition, participants wished for improvements in the physical environment. They also stated that they feel lonely and need social support from their family, peers and society. Impact: This study presents a comprehensive picture of the expectations regarding a healing care environment (caring behaviours and physical and social aspects) of hospitalized children with cancer undergoing treatment. The qualitative findings generated by our study have the potential to facilitate these children's healthy adjustment to the hospital environment and procedures during hospitalization. Knowledge acquired through this study may be used to shape nursing care, enhance the healing care environment, and ensure that hospital design and setting are acceptable to and appropriate for paediatric patients.