Two new Cephalaria Schrad. ex Roem. et Schutt. species (Caprifoliaceae) from Turkey, Cephalaria davisiana Gokturk & Sumbul and Cephalaria sumbuliana Gokturk, are described and illustrated. A map showing their distribution and other related taxa is given. The morphological differences of the 2 new species are discussed and comparisons are made with the similar Cephalaria speciosa Boiss. & Kotschy and Cephalaria elmaliensis Hub.-Mor. & V.A.Matthews. In addition to morphological observations, C. davisiana, C. sumbuliana, C. elmaliensis, and C. speciosa were analysed by applying RAPD-PCR techniques. RAPD methods clearly distinguished between the new species and the 2 species that they resemble.