Background: Fabaceae family members are known to possess preventive and therapeutic potentials against various types of cancers. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of hydroalcoholic extracts from the aerial parts and roots of an endemic Ebenus species; Ebenus boissieri Barbey in human lung cancer cell line. Materials and Methods: After treatment with hydroalcoholic extracts cytotoxic activities of both extracts were measured by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2) -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, whereas caspase-3 activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) release were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results: According to in vitro assay results, the increase in all caspases activity suggested that extracts induce cells to undergo apoptosis. Especially, induction in caspase-3 activity was the most remarkable result of this study. Both aerial part and root extracts induced apoptosis by increasing caspase-3 activity, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma release. When compared to their relative controls, the concentrations of both TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma in extract-treated groups were signi.cantly and dose dependently exalted. Conclusion: Taken together, our results indicate that the hydroalcoholic extracts of E. boissieri can be considered as a source of new anti-apoptotic and therefore anti-carcinogenic agent.