Orthostatic proteinuria: an overestimated phenomenon?

Arslan Z., KOYUN M., Erengin H., Akbas H., Aksoy G. K., ÇOMAK E., ...More

PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY, vol.35, no.10, pp.1935-1940, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 35 Issue: 10
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00467-020-04586-4
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.1935-1940
  • Keywords: Proteinuria, Orthostatic proteinuria, Prevalence, Schoolchildren, ASYMPTOMATIC URINARY ABNORMALITIES, FOLLOW-UP, SCHOOL, CHILDREN, HEMATURIA
  • Akdeniz University Affiliated: Yes


Background Although orthostatic proteinuria (OP) is the most common cause of childhood proteinuria, excluding transient proteinuria, data regarding prevalence and long-term prognosis are limited. We aimed to determine prevalence of OP in healthy schoolchildren evaluating relationships with age, gender and body mass index, and determine follow-up. Methods A total of 1701 healthy children aged 6-15 years were selected using a population-based, stratified, cluster-sampling method; and random urine samples were taken. For proteinuria >= 1+ in first urine samples, second and third random samples were taken at least 2 weeks apart to exclude transient proteinuria. For continuing proteinuria after third samples, first morning urine samples were collected. Cases where proteinuria was not detected in first morning urine samples were diagnosed as OP. Results Sixty-four of 1701 children (3.7%) had proteinuria on first random urine samples. After second and third urine samples, proteinuria persisted in only 16 (0.94%). OP was detected in 11 (0.65%). Prevalence of OP tended to decrease with increasing BMI, though not statistically significant. All 7 cases with OP who were re-evaluated later, had no proteinuria 3 years after diagnosis. Conclusions Prevalence of OP in our study was lower than the literature. At least three random urine samples should be taken to exclude transient proteinuria in an asymptomatic child/adolescent before making a diagnosis of OP using first morning urine samples. OP is a benign condition and resolves spontaneously in most cases. Underweight children had a tendency for OP compared with overweight and obese children; however, further studies with larger number of patients are needed.