Predictors of burnout among middle managers in the Turkish hospitality industry

KURUÜZÜM A., Anafarta N., IRMAK S.

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol.20, no.2, pp.186-198, 2008 (SCI-Expanded) identifier


Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of job satisfaction, job characteristics and demographics on levels of burnout among middle managers in the Turkish hospitality industry. Design/methodology/approach - Using a questionnaire survey of 139 middle managers in four- and five-star hotels in a major tourist destination of Turkey, data were collected on: the Turkish version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory; job satisfaction; job characteristics; and demographic characteristics. These data were then analysed for evidence of relationships among the variables. Findings - The burnout levels of the middle managers are found to be moderate. Job satisfaction and job characteristics are found to be important predictors of burnout. Certain job characteristics (such as excessive workload, lack of support from senior management, task complexity, and role ambiguity) increase the emotional exhaustion of middle managers and decrease their performance levels. Burnout levels among managers of food and beverage and front-office operations are found to be greater than those of other middle managers. Research limitations/implications - The factor of "job characteristics" was assessed according to the perceptions of the respondents, rather than by objective quantitative assessment. Practical implications - Job satisfaction and job characteristics are clearly identified as strong predictors of burnout among middle managers in the hotel industry. The practical implication is that senior management should support middle managers by relieving them of task complexity, role ambiguity, and excessive workload. Originality/value - The study identifies some important predictors of burnout, thus facilitating the development of strategies to reduce burnout and its adverse consequences in the hospitality industry. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.