Symmetric and asymmetric influences of service attributes: The case of fitness clubs


Managing Leisure, vol.19, no.5, pp.307-320, 2014 (Scopus) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 19 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2014
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/13606719.2014.885711
  • Journal Name: Managing Leisure
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus, IBZ Online, Business Source Elite, Business Source Premier, Hospitality & Tourism Complete, Hospitality & Tourism Index, SportDiscus
  • Page Numbers: pp.307-320
  • Keywords: customer satisfaction, fitness club, importance-performance analysis, satisfaction, service quality
  • Akdeniz University Affiliated: Yes


Today, with the aim of gaining competitive advantage, as well as achieving customer satisfaction, health and fitness clubs seek ways to expand their services. However, understanding the importance and influence of the services on customer satisfaction becomes very important, when making managerial decisions about the priority of numerous service attributes. Therefore, the present study identifies the service attributes of a fitness club by using the Service-Quality Assessment Scale and compares the results of importance-performance analysis (IPA) which adapts symmetric influences; and the Three-Factor Theory of Customer Satisfaction which adapts asymmetric influences of the attributes. Findings show that many of the attributes are classified differently, because of the distinct perspectives of the two techniques. For example, "Workout Facility" is a "needs to be improved" attribute in the IPA results, although it is classified as a basic factor when the asymmetric influence is taken into account. The only service element that both techniques highlighted is the "Staff" according to its importance and influence on overall customer satisfaction. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.