© 2022 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.The aim of this paper is to construct generating functions for certain families of special finite sums by using the Newton–Mercator series, hypergeometric functions, and (Formula presented.) -adic integral. By using these generating functions with their functional and partial derivative equations, many novel computational formulas involving the special finite sums of (inverse) binomial coefficients, the Bernoulli type polynomials and numbers, Euler polynomials and numbers, the Stirling numbers, the (alternating) harmonic numbers, the Leibnitz polynomials, and others are derived. We also develop a computation algorithm for these finite sums and provide some of their special values. By using these finite sums and combinatorial numbers, we find some formulas involving multiple alternating zeta functions, the Bernoulli polynomials of higher order and the Euler polynomials of higher order. We then obtain a decomposition from these formulas, which are related to the multiple Hurwitz zeta functions.