The Indirect Effect of Lightning Electromagnetic Pulses on Electrostatic, Electromagnetic Fields and Induced Voltages in Overhead Energy Transmission Lines

Creative Commons License

Çakıl T., Carlak H. F., Özen Ş.

APPLIED SCIENCES, vol.14, no.3090, pp.1-18, 2024 (SCI-Expanded)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 14 Issue: 3090
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/app14073090
  • Journal Name: APPLIED SCIENCES
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Applied Science & Technology Source, Central & Eastern European Academic Source (CEEAS), Computer & Applied Sciences, zbMATH, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-18
  • Akdeniz University Affiliated: Yes


The impact of a lightning electromagnetic pulse (LEMP) on a power line or power station produces an effect similar to that of switching between a significant power source and a power line circuit. This switch closure causes a sudden change in routing conditions, creating a transient state. This situation has been studied in terms of electrostatic and electromagnetic induction, as well as overvoltage changes. Appropriate mathematical models were used to analyze these changes. While vertical electric field analysis has been carried out in a few studies, magnetic field and horizontal electric field vectors have not been studied. In this study, the Rusck formulation and the Heidler current formulation are combined at the current level, developed and analyzed. This is because the Rusck expression can sometimes give incorrect results at the current level. Also, in the analysis, electromagnetic field formulations based on accelerating charges are used instead of the dipole approximation to eliminate the need for interpolation in the graphical results. In contrast to other studies in the literature, this study proposes the use of moving and accelerating load techniques to better understand the effects of LEMPs on power transmission lines. Also, in this study, the double exponential problem of the current form in Rusck’s formulation is addressed in order to obtain a close approximation of the physical form of the LEMP. Additionally, the field–line (coupling) relationship is studied according to a unique closed formulation, leading to important determinations about the overvoltages generated on a line depending on the propagation speed of the LEMP sprout and the electrical changes in the area where the LEMP first occurs.