The morphological features of Cephalaria Schrad. ex Roem. & Schuh. were studied based on our specimens collected between 1994 and 2010 in Turkey and herbarium specimens from various herbaria. In the present study, typifications, a list of synonyms, descriptions, ecology, phytogeographical regions, conservation status, and distribution of all studied taxa are given. Taxonomic relationships between similar species are discussed. Illustrations of habit, flower, calyx, involucel, and involucral and receptacular bracts of some species are given. Colour images of some species are also provided. Additional new characters were determined that were not previously given in descriptions of Cephalaria species in the Flora of Turkey, and a new identification key has been prepared for the Turkish species. In addition, Cephalaria demirizii Gokturk & Sumbul is given as a new species from Turkey, while C. amana Rech.f. is made a synonym of C. taurica Szabo. Lectotypes are designated for C. transylvanica (L.) Schrad., C. cilicica Boiss. & Kotschy, C. setosa Boiss. & Hohen., C. sparsipilosa V.A.Matthews, and C. taurica.