Analysis of the wedding traditions of Korkuteli region in terms of music folklore


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Gök S., Savaş C.

Rast Muzikoloji Dergisi, vol.11, no.1, pp.97-135, 2023 (Scopus)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 11 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.12975/rastmd.20231115
  • Journal Name: Rast Muzikoloji Dergisi
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.97-135
  • Akdeniz University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Analysis of the wedding traditions of Korkuteli region in terms of music folklore Extended Abstract The institution of marriage in Turkish society carries great significance and importance, such as establishing a home, ensuring the continuity of familial lineage, changes in social status, and strengthening kinship ties. The “wedding”, which is one of the richest elements of Turkish society in terms of music and folklore, has been one of the primary areas of research for Turkish music researchers in the transmission of many cultural musical sources. The wedding practice varies from region to region according to tradition, custom, and belief. The Korkuteli region has become a sample of music and folklore research in terms of its geographical features, deep-rooted history, and broad and deep cultural roots. These traditions, customs, and practices that are seen in every region are also witnessed within the specific values of the Korkuteli region. This study, which presents traditional wedding traditions in Korkuteli from a music and folklore perspective, is important for highlighting the region’s specific cultural contexts and for transforming the data collected into written documents to serve as a source of reference for future studies. As the Korkuteli region is a rural area, the transmission of culture and tradition usually occurs through individuals. The arrival of technological developments and opportunities to the region after the 1980s has made it difficult to access activities and practices that were carried out until that period. This situation can be likened to tracking in the dark. Therefore, the opinions and experiences of those who lived during and reflect upon those times are significant. Over time, the development of technological opportunities has enabled research to gain momentum. This study seeks answers to questions that identify the traditional wedding customs in the Korkuteli region, how they are applied, what songs belonging to the region are included in the TRT (Inst. of Turkish Radio and Television) Turkish folk music archive, in what format, in which scales, in which sound ranges, and in which measures, and what the themes in the lyrics of the songs are, and which songs are performed at traditional henna and weddings. The data of this study, designed through the case study and cultural analysis (ethnography) model of qualitative research methods, were analysed through descriptive analysis. Relevant data was created by utilising interviews with sources in the region and the various documents obtained. Weddings in the Korkuteli region are undertaken in three stages: pre-wedding, wedding, and post-wedding. In the pre-wedding process, there are several events such as “kız isteme” (asking for permission from the girl’s parents), “dürü” (a form of engagement ceremony), sending out invitations, and the wedding procession including “tongavut/tartala” (tossing coins), “keşkek dövme” (preparing a traditional wedding dish), “yuka ağzı” (the groom’s ceremonial entrance), “ıspa/ıspayı/ispahi” (a traditional dance), and various games. During the wedding, the “çeyizaltı” (bridal dowry), “maşala” (another traditional dance), wrestling, “kına” (henna night), “yas etme” (mourning ceremony), and “kız alma” (bride’s departure) rituals take place. After the wedding, “gelin yüzü” (bridal face painting) is performed. Traditional weddings are held for three days on Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays, or Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays, and the pre-wedding preparations and post-wedding rituals can extend the process to five days in total. In traditional weddings, when the bride and groom enter the wedding house, they show their intention and belief in the longevity and fertility of their marriage by having oil smeared on the door, nails hammered in, and their heads sprinkled with sugar, nuts, corn, and wheat. Nine folk songs from the Korkuteli region in the TRT Turkish folk music archive have similarities in five different modes, namely “Gülizar,” “Hicaz,” “Hüseyni,” “Uşşak,” and “Zirgüleli Hicaz,” with the most commonly used mode being “Gülizar.” Six different time signatures, including 2/4, 4/4, 6/2-9/2, 9/4, 7/8, and 9/8, are used in these songs, with 9/8 being the most common. Turkish folk songs are seen in four different voice ranges and melodies are mostly in the range of eight and nine voices. The themes of folk songs are mostly about love, longing, and being far from home. In the region, women sing two types of lamentation: one sung during weddings and the other sung after someone has passed away. Laments do not have a rhythmic or melodic structure and are sung in a crying form. In traditional henna nights and weddings, female performers play the copper basin while male performers play the drum, zurna (a wind instrument), and bağlama (a stringed instrument). As a result, many practices carried out during traditional weddings are still commonly seen today. However, with the development of technology and the ease of access, the proliferation of mass communication tools, changes in social communication, the impact of migration from villages to cities, and changes in occupations, many factors that come with the times have also led to the possibility of these traditional weddings and rituals changing and eventually being forgotten over time. The importance of the work done to assess the cultural and sociological value of traditional weddings, to compare the past with the present, and to ensure that they are not forgotten is evident. In Korkuteli region, from the 1970s to the present day, a period during which traditional wedding customs were documented from a musical and folkloric perspective, and in this context, a study was presented that narrates the region-specific cultural textures that serve as a source for future field studies. Studies focused on the music and folklore of traditional weddings can be presented at interdisciplinary conferences or seminars, and folk songs collected from the region can be performed in concerts with appropriate explanations.

Keywords Korkuteli (a district in Antalya Province, Turkey), music folklore, tradition, Turkish folk music, wedding

Öz Korkuteli yöresi düğün geleneklerinin müzik folkloru açısından sunulduğu bu çalışmada, yöreye özgü kültürel dokuların öne çıkarılması, toplanan verilerin yazılı dokümanlara dönüştürülerek sonraki çalışmalara kaynaklık etmesi üzerine odaklanılmıştır. Bu çalışmada, Korkuteli yöresinde geleneksel anlayışlarla günümüze kadar gelmiş, özellikle elektriğin ve teknolojik imkânların sınırlı olduğu ya da yeni yeni kullanılmaya başlandığı dönemleri (1970-1980’li yıllar) kapsayan düğün örf ve adetlerinin birinci ağızdan yansıtılması amaçlanmıştır. İlgili veriler yöredeki kaynak kişilerle yapılan görüşmelerden ve elde edilen dokümanlardan yararlanılarak oluşturulmuştur. Nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden durum çalışması ve kültür analizi (etnografi/ etnografya) modeliyle desenlenen bu çalışmanın verileri betimsel analiz yapılarak çözümlenmiştir. Yöredeki düğünler; düğün öncesi, düğün süreci ve düğün sonrası olmak üzere üç aşamada değerlendirilmiş, düğün öncesi süreçte; kız isteme, dürü, oku/davetiye, düğün sürecinde; tongavut/ tartala, keşkek dövme, yuka ağzı, ıspa/ıspayı/ispahi ve düğünlerde oynanan oyunlar, çeyizaltı, maşala, güreş, kına, yas etme, kız alma (gelin alma), düğün sonrasında ise gelin yüzü yapıldığı belirlenmiştir. Geleneksel düğünler cuma, cumartesi ve pazar ya da salı, çarşamba ve perşembe olmak üzere üç gün yapılmakta, düğün öncesi hazırlıklar ve düğün sonrası yapılan ritüellerle süreç beş günü bulabilmektedir. Korkuteli’ne ait TRT Türk halk müziği arşivine kayıtlı dokuz türkü, Gülizar, Hicaz, Hüseyni, Uşşak ve Zirgüleli Hicaz olmak üzere beş farklı makam dizisi ile benzerlik göstermektedir ve kullanım sıklığı bakımından en yaygın görülen Gülizar makamı dizisidir. Türkülerde 2/4, 4/4, 6/2-9/2, 9/4, 7/8 ve 9/8 olmak üzere altı farklı ölçü sayısı kullanılmıştır ve bu ölçülerden en yaygını 9/8’dir. Türküler dört farklı ses sınırında görülmüştür ve ezgiler çoğunlukla sekiz ve dokuz ses sınırındadır. Türkülerin temaları çoğunlukla aşk-sevda ve gurbettir. Yörede, gelin olurken söylenen ve ölenin arkasından söylenen olmak üzere, kadınlar tarafından iki türlü ağıt yakılmaktadır. Ağıtların ritmik ve melodik bir yürüyüşü yoktur ve ağlama biçiminde söylenmektedir. Geleneksel kına ve düğünlerde kadın icracılar bakır leğen, erkek icracılar davul, zurna ve bağlama çalmaktadır. Sonuç olarak, Korkuteli yöresinde 1970-1980’li yıllardan günümüze kadar ulaşan bir zaman diliminde, geleneksel düğün adetleri ile müziklerinin belgelendirildiği ve bu bağlamda yöreye özgü dönemsel kültürel dokuların anlatıldığı, daha sonraki alan araştırmalarına kaynak olma niteliğinde bir çalışma sunulmuştur.

Anahtar Kelimeler düğün, gelenek, Korkuteli, müzik folkloru, Türk halk müziği